The brothers Francis Stainthorp (1803-1882) and John Stainthorp (1810-1858), weavers of Hutton Rudby

Posted on November 19th, 2014 by Paul Stainthorp

Early life

Francis Stainthorp was born on 22nd August 1803 in Hutton Rudby in the old North Riding of Yorkshire. He was named after his father Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822); his mother was Francis’s second wife Hannah née Waring (1768-1836).1,2 The younger Francis was my great-great-great-great grandfather.

He was baptised at the parish church of All Saints on 4th November 1803, when he was two months old.2 His fourteen-month-old sister Hannah was christened on the same day. As well as Hannah, Francis had two older half-sisters, Margaret and Jane, from his father’s first marriage. Then after Hannah and Francis would come Mary and Ann. (Three other siblings died in infancy.)1

Last of all, Francis’s brother John Stainthorp was born in 1810 and baptised on 19th August that year.3 John and Francis both became hand-loom linen weavers like their father before them. At the time of their birth, Hutton Rudby was still dominated by the cottage weaving industry, and the brothers were doubtless among the one hundred and twenty-three weavers enumerated in Hutton in the 1831 census.4

Inheritance

The Hand Loom Weaver by F.W. Jackson

The Hand Loom Weaver by F.W. Jackson (Manchester Art Gallery).
Licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

When their father Francis Stainthorp senior died in 1822, he left a considerable amount of property to his widow and seven children: a house each for his older daughters Jane and Margaret; forty pounds apiece and all his remaining household goods to his other daughters Hannah, Mary and Ann. Francis and John inherited all of their father’s “…farming stock, Implements of Husbandry and stock in Trade…” (i.e. weaving), and no fewer than four additional houses, two acres of land, and an orchard in Hutton Rudby – with all the rents and profits going to their mother Hannah until she died or remarried.5,6

Francis’ and John’s half-sister Margaret died in February 1828 when she was only thirty-six. Francis Stainthorp was appointed as the joint administrator of her estate, along with her full-blood sister Jane.7

(Jane Stainthorp had married John Oates on 17th August 1827 at Rudby. Of the other sisters, Mary married Thomas Raney in 1826, Ann Thomas Robinson in ’27, and Hannah John Furness in ’28.)1,7

Like his father, the property Francis owned entitled him to vote in general elections, even prior to the wider suffrage which would shortly be introduced by the Great Reform Act.8

Marriage of Francis

Francis married Ann Seamer on 16th June 1829 at Rudby.9 He was twenty-five; Ann three years older. Ann was the daughter of William Seamer and Susannah (née Osbourne) and was born in the parish of Ingleby Arncliffe, five miles from Hutton Rudby.10 Francis and Ann Stainthorp had three sons:

  1. William (bapt. 11th April 1830 – died of consumption aged seventeen, 14th February 1848)11,12
  2. Francis (bapt. 4th August 1833 – died of consumption aged seven, 24th May 1840)13,14
  3. Charles (bapt. 27th December 1835)15

Only the youngest, Charles, survived to have children of his own: his brothers both died of ‘consumption’ (i.e. tuberculosis), though William lived long enough to be recorded on his death certificate as a weaver in his own right.12 Around one in four deaths in England in the early 1800s have been attributed to TB.16

Francis’ and John’s mother Hannah also passed away in 1836, aged sixty-eight. She was buried with her husband in the churchyard of Rudby All Saints; there is a headstone.17

In 1840, Francis Stainthorp was one of sixteen Cleveland weavers who added their names to a letter submitted as part of a House of Lords inquiry into the hand-loom weaving industry, confirming that a man could earn, on average, 9s. 6d. a week from weaving, based on a twelve-hour working day.18

Bridge over the River Leven, Hutton Rudby. © Copyright Paul Buckingham

Bridge over the River Leven, Hutton Rudby.
© Copyright Paul Buckingham and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

The censuses

From this point on it is possible to use census records to trace the Stainthorp family in Hutton Rudby. The first ‘modern’ census of UK households was taken on 6th June 1841. Although censuses had been taken every ten years since the passing of the Census Act 1800, these earlier, pre-1841 censuses were anonymous head-counts of residents and occupations and are not generally useful for family historians.

In 1841, Francis would have been thirty-seven years old but appears on the census as thirty-five (adults’ ages were rounded down to the nearest five years). His wife Ann was forty. Their two sons William and Charles were eleven and five respectively – their middle son Francis having died a year previously. Also living with them is John, aged twenty-five (i.e. twenty-nine). Both Francis’ and John’s occupations are recorded as “L[inen] Weaver“, and the whole family are living together at North End, Hutton.19

North End is probably the oldest part of the village of Hutton Rudby, and many of the village’s weavers lived in the cottages around the green.20

Marriage and death of John

John Stainthorp married Mary Bennison on 15th April 1850 at the parish church of St Peter and St Paul in the market town of Stokesley, four miles from Hutton Rudby. Mary, the daughter of Thomas Bennison, was born in the tiny village of Easby, just to the east of Stokesley.21 Mary and John had two sons:

  1. Francis (born 13th January 1851)22
  2. Robert (born 11th November 1852)23

By the 1851 census, Francis and Ann, by now aged forty-eight and fifty-one, were living alone in North End. (Their remaining son Charles was away as a farmer’s servant in nearby Normanby.)24 Brother John aged forty, his wife Mary aged thirty-four and their eleven-week old son Francis were right next door in North End; probably this was a pair of cottages which they had inherited from their father as tenants in common. Again both Francis’ and John’s occupations were recorded as “Hand Loom Weaver Linen“.25

John Stainthorp was just forty-seven years old when he died, on 30th April 1858, of typhoid fever.26 John’s brother Francis reported his death to the Stokesley registrar, and he was buried two days later.1

Map of Hutton Rudby showing North End and South Side/Goldie Hill.  Ordnance Survey six-inch map of Yorkshire (sheet 28), 1856. Reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland.

Map of Hutton Rudby showing North End and Goldie Hill.
Ordnance Survey six-inch map of Yorkshire (sheet 28), 1856.
Reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland.

Later censuses

By 1861, Ann and Francis had left North End and moved a few hundred yards to South Side on the main street in Hutton, next door to the Primitive Methodist Chapel.27 The widowed Mary was still in North End, raising her eight- and ten-year-old sons on her income as a flax winder and charwoman (“chore-woman”, a jobbing maid or cleaner, and nothing to do with “char” being an Anglo-Indian word for tea!).28,29

Ten years later in the 1871 census, Ann and Francis were still by the Methodists’ Chapel on South Side, in a corner of the village which is still known as Goldie Hill.30 By now Mary in North End was also living alone; she is recorded on the census as a washerwoman.31

The last time they appear together is on the 1881 census. Ann and Francis are still on the main street at Goldie Hill. By now, at the age of seventy-seven, Francis had quit weaving (in fact, by now hand-loom weaving had all but quit Hutton Rudby…) and was recorded on the census as deriving income from his land.32 At sixty-three Mary was still working as a charwoman but by 1881 she had been rejoined in North End by her thirty-year-old son Francis—by now an ironstone miner—and his own wife and daughter.33

Deaths of Francis, Ann and Mary

Francis Stainthorp died on 14th August 1882 of bronchitis and general debility. He was seventy-eight years old.34 His widow Ann née Seamer followed five months later on 5th Feb 1883 aged eighty-two; her death was registered by their young granddaughter Maria.35 They were both buried at Rudby.1

Francis and Ann’s remaining son Charles Stainthorp (1835-1905) married twice and had eleven children. He was a butcher and farmer in Hutton Rudby before he left the North Riding and ended his days as a dairyman in Newcastle upon Tyne. Charles lived an eventful life and will be the subject of a future post. He was my great-great-great grandfather.

By 1891, Mary Stainthorp née Bennison was living with her younger son Robert and his family in Carlin How, near Saltburn on the Yorkshire coast.36 She died in the year 1900 at the age of eighty-two.37

Mary and John’s younger son Robert Stainthorp (1852-1937?) worked as a farm servant as a young man before marrying Mary Ann Dixon in 1881, settling down in Carlin How as a railway platelayer, and having seven children of his own (Tom, Maggie and Henry, plus four who died in childhood).38

Robert’s elder brother Francis Stainthorp (1851-1914) also worked as a farm servant, and later as an ironstone miner and blast-furnace labourer. He married Ann Parks in Skelton-in-Cleveland in June 1873, had two daughters (Annie Elizabeth and Mary Jane), and died in Middlesbrough on 24th February 1914.39

Sketch family tree showing the family of Francis and John Stainthorp in Hutton Rudby.

Sketch family tree showing the family of Francis and John Stainthorp in Hutton Rudby.
Some dates of birth and death are unconfirmed.
Image created using Family Echo software (www.familyecho.com).

Acknowledgements

This post is thanks to the National Archives, Borthwick Institute for Archives, Lincolnshire public library service, the libraries of Robert Gordon University and the University of Lincoln, the Northumberland and Durham Family History Society, the RootsChat web forum and the ENG-NORTH-YORKS mailing list.

References

  1. Hutton Rudby and District Local History Society. Handwritten transcriptions from the registers of the parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entries for ‘Stainthorp’ and related spellings. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com).
  2. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the baptism of Francis Stainthorpe, 4th November 1803.
  3. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the baptism of John Stainthorpe, 19th August 1810.
  4. Hastings, Robert P. Hutton Rudby: industrial village (c.1700-1900). Hutton Rudby and District Local History Society, 1979.
  5. Exchequer Court of York. The will of Francis Stainthorpe. Probate register 167, folio 621. Deanery of Cleveland, 11th November 1822. York: Borthwick Institute for Archives.
  6. Estate Duty Office. Death duty registers. Archive reference IR 26/932, S-T, folio numbers 1642-1942. Entry for Francis Stainthorpe, 11th November 1822. Kew: The National Archives.
  7. Prerogative Court of York. Admon of Margaret Stainthorpe. Probate register 178. Deanery of Cleveland, July 1828. York: Borthwick Institute for Archives.
  8. The copy of the lists of persons entitled to vote in the election of two Knights of the Shire for the North-Riding of the County of York, in respect of property situate within the several and respective parishes, townships and places, within mentioned, in the Division or Wapentake of Langbaurgh-West… etc. Northallerton: E. Langdale, 1834. Ancestry Library Edition. http://interactive.ancestrylibrary.com/2410/32969_605905_2052-00053/ (accessed 7th November 2014).
  9. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the marriage of Francis Stainthorpe and Ann Seamer, 16th June 1829.
  10. Parish of Ingleby Arncliffe. Parish register. Entry for the baptism of Ann Seamer, 16th March 1800.
  11. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the baptism of William Stainthorp, 11th April 1830.
  12. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for William Stainthorp, 14th February 1848. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 24 399. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=WTid0xIRy7p4MMXBgtkdJg&scan=1 (accessed 15th October 2014).
  13. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the baptism of Francis Stainthorp, 4th August 1833.
  14. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for Francis Stainthorp, 24th May 1840. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley XXIV 326. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=hFGOb3hYcdX31Axmj%2FMOYA&scan=1 (accessed 15th October 2014).
  15. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the baptism of Charles Stainthorp, 27th December 1835.
  16. Douglas, Laurelyn. ‘Health and hygiene in the nineteenth century.’ The Victorian Web: literature, history & culture in the age of Victora. 1991. http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/health10.html (accessed 15th October 2014).
  17. Headstone of Francis Stainthorp, All Saints, Rudby-in-Cleveland. Photograph taken by Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com), 6th April 2014. Find A Grave. http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=Stainthorp&GSfn=Francis&GRid=128813340 (accessed 30th April 2014).
  18. Reports from Assistant Hand-loom Weavers Commissioners. The sessional papers of the House of Lords, in the session 1840 (3° & 4° Victoriæ). Vol. XXXVII. Westminster: House of Lords, 1840. Google Books. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9xFcAAAAQAAJ (accessed 4th November 2014).
  19. General Register Office. 1841 census returns. Archive reference HO107, piece 1258, book 9, folio 13, page 18. Entry for North End, Township of Hutton, Rudby in Cleveland.
  20. Barrigan, Alice. A history walk round Hutton Rudby. Hutton Rudby History Society, 1997. North Yorkshire Historyhttp://northyorkshirehistory.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/a-history-walk-round-hutton-rudby.html (accessed 14th October 2014).
  21. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of marriage. Entry for John Stainthorp and Mary Bennison, 15th April 1850. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley XXIV 665. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=BLCItMhJYmcTHB2CkO0cUg&scan=1 (accessed 14th November 2014).
  22. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of birth. Entry for Francis Stainthorp, 13th January 1851. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley XXII 559. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=Sktp6nlISW5P5E%2FZW1EjtA&scan=1 (accessed 7th November 2014).
  23. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of birth. Entry for Robert Stainthorpe, 11th November 1852. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 9d 381. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=Vxj4h4HyZsjKd2eZoTHEfg&scan=1 (accessed 7th November 2014).
  24. General Register Office. 1851 census returns. Archive reference HO107, piece 2375, folio 268, page 27. Entry for Tees Tilery, Normanby, Guisborough.
  25. General Register Office. 1851 census returns. Archive reference HO107, piece 2376, folio 279, pages 15-16. Entry for North End, Hutton.
  26. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for John Stainthorp, 30th April 1858. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 9d 311. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=dc%2B1re4MDF%2BbZ94BWsEQMQ&scan=1 (accessed 17th November 2014).
  27. General Register Office. 1861 census returns. Archive reference RG9, piece 3659, folio 16, page 10. Entry for South Side, Main Street, Hutton Rudby.
  28. General Register Office. 1861 census returns. Archive reference RG9, piece 3659, folio 23, page 24. Entry for North End, Hutton Rudby.
  29. Oxford English Dictionary. Entry for ‘charwoman, n.’ Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/30845 (accessed 12th December 2014)
  30. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 4861, folio 16, page 9. Entry for Goldie Hill, Hutton.
  31. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 4861, folio 18, page 13. Entry for North End, Hutton.
  32. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 4867, folio 13, page 2. Entry for High Street, Hutton Rudby.
  33. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 4867, folio 26, page 28. Entry for North End, Hutton Rudby.
  34. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for Francis Stainthorpe, 14th August 1882. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 9d 435. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=R3yuf%2FUe7RBo1B8engtTeQ&scan=1 (accessed 21st October 2014).
  35. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for Ann Stainthorpe, 5th February 1883. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 9d 453. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=hfX2WwpnTXEC0soyDLQJKg&scan=1 (accessed 21st October 2014).
  36. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 3998, folio 38, page 40. Entry for 4 Railway Cottages, Brotton.
  37. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Mary Stainthorpe, September Quarter 1900. GRO index reference: Guisbro’ 9d 340. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=TdfMGRsn3QYMD%2FLELT7hVw&scan=1 (accessed 17th November 2014).
  38. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference RG14PN29163 RG78PN1689 RD534 SD1 ED12 SN291. Entry for 4 Railway Cottages, Carlin How, Brotton.
  39. Ancestry.com. Public Member Trees. Wilkins – Crooks_2011-08-21. Entry for Francis Stainthorpe. Ancestry Library Edition. http://trees.ancestrylibrary.com/tree/43012929/person/12605101672 (accessed 26th November 2014).

Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). Version 1.1.0, updated 12th December 2014.

Thomas Foster and Hannah Cass Bassett

Posted on November 11th, 2014 by Paul Stainthorp
The grave site of Thomas Foster, his wife Hannah Cass Foster née Bassett, and their daughter Eliza. Newport Cemetery, Lincoln.

The grave site of Thomas Foster, his wife Hannah Cass Foster née Bassett, and their daughter Eliza.
Newport Cemetery, Lincoln. 
Copyright © Paul Stainthorp, and licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License

Thomas Foster was born in May 1849 in the hamlet of Friday Bridge on the outskirts of Wisbech in Cambridgeshire.1 He was one of the six children of Norfolk-born Thomas Foster senior (1822-1896) who was variously a farmer, railway worker and millwright’s assistant, and Susannah Batterham née Greeves (1823-1902).1-9

Thomas junior moved from Wisbech to Lincoln some time around 1870 and married Hannah Cass Bassett there in 1876.10

Hannah was born in Lincoln in 1855;11 she was the eldest child of Edwin Bassett, a tailor originally from Shropshire, and Lincoln native Margaret L. Cass.12-14 Hannah grew up on West Bight in uphill Lincoln;13 before her marriage to Thomas Foster she worked as a household servant at Mr Mantle’s school for choristers in Northgate (the forerunner of the current Minster School).15,16

After their marriage Thomas worked as a house painter,17-20 and the couple moved to number 63 Burton Road in the city in about the year 1900.18-20 They had seven children: Eliza, Louisa, Harry Edward, Fred*, Margaret, William Bassett**, and Jennie.17-24

Thomas Foster died in Lincoln in June 1931 at the age of eighty-two;25,26 his widow Hannah Foster in March 1941, aged eighty-six.27,28 They both received funerals at St Nicholas’ Church on Newport and were buried in plot D.310 in Newport Cemetery, along with their oldest daughter Eliza who died in 1965. Records show that there was a headstone but it has disappeared.27

*Fred Foster (1884-1957) was the father of John Thomas Foster (1909-1992).29

**William Bassett Foster became a Private in the 1/4th Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment, and fought in World War One. He was killed in the “useless slaughter of infantry” of the Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt at Loos on 13th October 1915, aged 26, and is commemorated on the Loos Memorial in northern France as well as the city war memorial on Lincoln High Street.30,31

Acknowledgements

With thanks to the staff of the Crematorium Office of the City of Lincoln Council and the attendants of Newport Cemetery, Lincoln, for their help in finding the grave site. Thanks also to the Lincolnshire public library service and the Lincolnshire Archives.

References

  1. Parish of Elm. Parish register. Entry for the baptism of Thomas Foster, 24th May 1849. Transcription. FreeREG. http://www.freereg.org.uk/ (accessed 10th November 2014).
  2. Parish of Tydd St Giles. Parish register. Entry for the marriage of Thomas Foster and Susannah Batterham Greeves, 6th May 1847. Transcription. FreeREG. http://www.freereg.org.uk/ (accessed 11th November 2014).
  3. General Register Office. 1851 census returns. Archive reference HO107, piece 1767, folio 345, page 18. Entry for Elm, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.
  4. General Register Office. 1861 census returns. Archive reference RG9, piece 4101, folio 34, page 7. Entry for Rutland House, Rutland Street, Swansea, Glamorganshire, Wales.
  5. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 1616, folio 66, page 39. Entry for 42 Albert Street, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.
  6. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 1696, folio 48, page 42. Entry for 43 Albert Street, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.
  7. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 1305, folio 38, page 38. Entry for 51 Albert Street, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.
  8. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Thomas Foster, September Quarter 1896. GRO index reference: Wisbech 3b 329. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=XLse92qRnXYHAR5SD0NqNg&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  9. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Susannah Batterham Foster, March Quarter 1902. GRO index reference: Wisbech 3b 376. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=BCzxbpdxYxbB8gBix6jxZQ&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  10. General Register Office. Index to the register of marriages. Entry for Thomas Foster, June Quarter 1876. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 1019. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=fKwWWIXDsv%2FYT30GyNx4GQ&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  11. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Hannah Cass Bassett, March Quarter 1855. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 431. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=%2F0jGCBtbwwI31g9txIjhgg&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  12. General Register Office. Index to the register of marriages. Entry for Edwin Bassett, December Quarter 1854. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 976. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=%2FuKVdeyv9h8nr5ZY2iy2pA&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  13. General Register Office. 1861 census returns. Archive reference RG9, piece 2361, folio 110, page 22. Entry for 5 West Bight, Lincoln.
  14. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 3374, folio 15, page 22. Entry for 5 West Bight, Lincoln.
  15. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 3373, folio 82, page 24. Entry for 1 Northgate, Lincoln.
  16. Page, Anne. ‘Lincoln, The Minster School.’ Of Choristers – ancient and modern. 21st December 2004. http://www.ofchoristers.net/Chapters/Lincoln.htm (accessed 11th November 2014).
  17. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 3241, folio 74, page 15. Entry for 31 Burton Road, Lincoln.
  18. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 2592, folio 27, page 2. Entry for 63 Burton Road, Lincoln.
  19. General Register Office. 1901 census returns. Archive reference RG13, piece 3063, folio 92, page 5. Entry for 63 Burton Road, Lincoln.
  20. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference RG14PN19749 RG78PN1182 RD418 SD2 ED30 SN18. Entry for 63 Burton Road, Lincoln.
  21. Parish of Lincoln St Nicholas with St John. Parish register. Entries for the baptisms of Eliza Foster, Louisa Foster, Harry E. Foster and Fred Foster, 24th August 1884. Archive reference LINCOLN ST NICHOLAS PAR/1/1/6, pages 87-88. Lincoln: Lincolnshire Archives. Lincs to the Past. http://www.lincstothepast.com/Records/RecordDisplayTranscript.aspx?oid=518240&iid=421466 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  22. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Margaret Foster, December Quarter 1886. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 496. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=xmdf8m5fClioag9J6t4SxA&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  23. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for William Bassett Foster, December Quarter 1889. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 508. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=HYfnVTaS%2BPRl1BfsCUdp4w&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  24. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Jennie Foster, September Quarter 1892. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 528. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=2c24R0rCfDtI9tgSIIo6iQ&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  25. Parish of Lincoln St Nicholas with St John. Parish register. Entry for the burial of Thomas Foster, 11th June 1931. Archive reference LINCOLN ST NICHOLAS PAR/1/1/19, page 45. Lincoln: Lincolnshire Archives. Lincs to the Past. http://www.lincstothepast.com/Records/RecordDisplayTranscript.aspx?oid=713481&iid=421970 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  26. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Thomas Foster, June Quarter 1931. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 568. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=gL294BUXbCDQFkilFpoFSw&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  27. Burial record for Thomas Foster, Hannah Cass Foster and Eliza Hawley. Plot D.310, General section, Newport Cemetery, Lincoln.
  28. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Hannah C. Foster, March Quarter 1941. GRO index reference: Lincoln 7a 1372. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=X3BBhb%2BBLdUNdOtzjb46EQ&scan=1 (accessed 11th November 2014).
  29. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference RG14PN19749 RG78PN1182 RD418 SD2 ED30 SN154. Entry for 102 Mill Road, Lincoln.
  30. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Casualty details. Entry for 2783 Foster, William Bassett. Loos Memorial, France. http://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/casualty/2942656/FOSTER,%20WILLIAM%20BASSETT (accessed 11th November 2014).
  31. City War Memorial, High Street, Lincoln. Entry for W.B. Foster.

Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). Version 1.0, updated 11th November 2014.

First World War centenary family history

Posted on August 14th, 2014 by Paul Stainthorp

In commemoration of the centenary of the start of the First World War, here are my notes on my ancestors and their immediate family members who served in the British armed forces between 1914-1918. I know of two immediate relatives who lost their lives in WWI, plus three relatives of my wife’s:

  1. John Wears Gray (1894-1918)
  2. Francis “Frank” Stainthorp (1886-1918)
  3. George Mabbott Black (1891-1915)
  4. Arthur Black (1897-1915)
  5. William Bassett Foster (1889-1915)
  6. I have also included brief notes on other relatives who served and survived the war

Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). Version 1.0, updated 14th August 2014.

1. John Wears Gray (1894-1918)

Private John Wears Gray, 5132 Royal Scots, later 350197, "D" Company, 9th (Glasgow Highlanders) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry.

Private John Wears Gray, 5132 Royal Scots, later 350197, “D” Company, 9th (Glasgow Highlanders) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry. Died aged 25 on 29th September 1918. Buried at Targelle Ravine British Cemetery, Villers-Guislain, France. Family photograph, © all rights reserved

My great-great-uncle John Wears Gray was born in 1894 in Newcastle upon Tyne, the second son of corporation rent-collector Charles Gray and his wife Sarah née Wears. In the census of 1901, John, aged 7, was with his parents at the family home at 14, Dene Terrace, South Gosforth – at the same address in 1911 he was recorded as a 17-year-old grocers’ apprentice with the Newcastle Co-operative Society (John’s father Charles had died four years earlier, at the age of only 42, leaving five children and his wife Sarah expecting twins).

It appears that John Wears Gray enlisted sometime in 1915. Although his WWI military service record has not survived, John’s medal card records his rank (Private), regimental number (5132) and that he initially served in the Royal Scots regiment.

At some point, John was transferred from the Royal Scots to the 9th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry and given a new regimental number (350197); possibly he was one of the men who joined the H.L.I. near Mametz Wood in the Somme in northern France in July 1916 – this fresh intake of men was recorded in the regimental diary.

At 4.40am on Sunday 29th September 1918, “D” Company of the 9th Glasgow Highlanders moved out of their trenches behind the front line in the small French commune of Villers-Guislain, south of Cambrai. An hour later they charged the German lines in thick fog.

At Targelle Ravine, some 60 men led by Lieutenant Douglas Fountaine Brodie found themselves too far forward and cut off from the rest of the brigade. They dug in and sent a message asking for instructions (the order to withdraw given in reply was intercepted – the messenger was taken prisoner). Most of the men at in Lt D. F. Brodie’s isolated party at Targelle were captured. Lt Brodie escaped capture by feigning death, but was killed in action a month later.

John Wears Gray was one of more than 350 men killed in the fighting at Villers-Guislain on this single day in September. He was 25. Next morning’s entry in the regimental diary begins:

30 September 1918: front line at Villers Guislain.
The morning stand to was unusually quiet.
—Diary of 9th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry. WO 95/2431/1. Kew: The National Archives

Screenshot from the Ian Hislop episode of the BBC's 'Who Do You Think You Are?' programme, showing John Wears Gray's headstone at Targelle Ravine British Cemetery

Screenshot from the Ian Hislop episode of the BBC’s ‘Who Do You Think You Are?‘ programme, showing John Wears Gray’s headstone at Targelle Ravine British Cemetery, Villers-Guislain. Broadcast on Yesterday, 14th November 2013

350197 Private John Wears Gray, the son of Sarah Gray, of 14, Dene Terrace, South Gosforth, Newcastle upon Tyne, and the late Charles Gray, is buried in Targelle Ravine British Cemetery, Villers-Guislain, Nord, France.

David Murdoch Hislop, the paternal grandfather of the journalist & broadcaster Ian Hislop, served in the Highland Light Infantry alongside my great-great-uncle John Wears Gray, and also fought at the battle of Targelle Ravine. In the first series of the BBC’s family history programme ‘Who Do You Think You Are?‘, Ian Hislop travelled with his family to Villers-Guislain and retraced the footsteps of his grandfather in the battle on 29th September 1918. In a sequence filmed at the Targelle Ravine cemetery, the camera pans along the line of white Commonwealth gravestones, and John Wears Gray’s own headstone can be clearly seen on screen.

John Gray was posthumously awarded the standard Victory and British campaign medals which presumably were sent to his widowed mother Sarah. His name is inscribed on a memorial plaque at St Nicholas’ Church, South Gosforth – images of the memorial are available on the North East War Memorials Project website.

John’s elder brother, my great-grandfather David Gray, also served in the war (see below).

2. Francis “Frank” Stainthorp (1886-1918)

Another two-greats uncle, the son of butcher/publican William Stainthorp and Margaret Anne née Harland. Francis Stainthorp was born on 19th January 1886 at the Crown and Anchor Hotel, Main Street, Redcar, Yorks., where his father William was landlord. By 1891, William Stainthorp had taken over the licence at the New Inn, Skelton-in-Cleveland, and the 4-year-old Frank was listed there on the ’91 census.

By 1901, the Stainthorps had moved to 57 Castlereagh Street, New Silksworth, a mining-village suburb of Sunderland, and William had returned to the usual Stainthorp family occupation of butcher. Frank married Mary Lena Mason in Sunderland in 1910, and by 1911 the newlyweds had set up home in a three-room tenement on Burdon Lane, Ryhope, County Durham – Frank having followed his father into the butchery trade. One daughter, Margaret, was born in Ryhope on 14th January 1911 – a second, named Mary Lena after her mother, followed on 31st March 1913, after the family had moved to nearby Seaham.

Francis Stainthorp enlisted in the army on 9th September 1914 at Seaham Harbour, County Durham, joining the 14th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry with the rank of Private; regimental number 21653. He was 28 years old – his attestation papers recorded that he had previously served in the Northants (or possibly Northumberland – the handwriting is not clear!) Hussars, a Yeomanry regiment. He gave his occupation as butcher; his medical record shows that he was 5′ 9¼” tall and weighed just over nine stone.

While undergoing basic training at Halton Park near Tring in Hertfordshire, Frank was promoted to Lance Corporal. (He was stripped of this rank in 1915 after being picked up drunk and absent without leave, having overstayed his pass. He further marked his card in 1916 when he was arrested and tried by Field General Court Martial for “conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline” – Confined to Barracks for 10 days. He was eventually reappointed L/Cpl on 12th February 1917.)

In February 1918 Frank was among 200 soldiers transferred from the 14th to the 19th Battalion of the Durham Light Infantry while the latter was encamped behind the front lines at Poelcappelle in Flanders.

Ordnance Survey / British War Office (G.S.G.S.), First World War Trench Map showing Avelghem and Kerkhove, October 1918. National Library of Scotland

Ordnance Survey / British War Office (G.S.G.S.), First World War Trench Map showing Avelghem and Kerkhove, October 1918. National Library of Scotland

By 31st October the same year—in the final “Hundred Days” offensive of the war—the 19th D.L.I. were in the front line north of Avelghem. At 5.35 on the morning of the 31st, the Faithful Durhams attacked along with two battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers. By 10.30am they had taken all objectives along with 350 German prisoners, and the British Army controlled a stretch of country to the east of Avelghem as far as the small village of Kerkhove with its church dedicated to Saint Amand (Sint-Amandus).

However these gains came at a heavy cost. 102 British soldiers were killed on this day at Avelghem.

21653 L/Cpl Frank Stainthorp, aged 32, died of his wounds on 31st October 1918 near the village of Kerkhove; he was buried in the churchyard at Kerkhove Sint-Amanduskerk. In November 1922, as part of a programme of ‘concentration’ of scattered individual British and Commonwealth war graves into larger cemeteries, his body was exhumed and moved to the huge Bedford House Cemetery near Ieper (Ypres).

Awaiting photograph…

Awaiting photograph…

Frank’s campaign medals were sent to his widow, Mrs Mary Lena Stainthorp of 15, Hill Street, Seaham Harbour, Co. Durham. In 1919, Mary was awarded a widow’s pension of 25s. 5d. a week.

Frank Stainthorp’s name was added to a memorial plaque which was erected at Chester-le-Street Wesleyan Methodist Church in June 1922. However, the plaque was lost when the church was later converted into a private house. Details of the memorial are available on the North East War Memorials Project website.

I have not yet been able to trace what happened to Frank’s family in County Durham after the war. His daughter Margaret may have married Reginald S. Godfrey in Middlesex in 1934.

N.B. this Francis Stainthorp (1886-1918) was the 2-greats grandson of Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822), weaver of Hutton Rudby, whom I have written about here.

3. George Mabbott Black (1891-1915)

4. Arthur Black (1897-1915)

My wife’s great-uncles George and Arthur Black were brothers: two of the thirteen children of agricultural labourer William Black and his wife Mary née Pask of 35, Hope Street, Lincoln.

George Mabbott Black was born on 30th November 1890 in Sturton-by-Stow, Lincs.; his middle name “Mabbott” was the maiden name of his maternal grandmother. A farm waggoner, he joined the Royal Navy and by 1915 was a Stoker on the destroyer HMS Wolverine. He died on 27th August 1915 in the Eastern Mediterranean, presumably while on active service as part of the Dardanelles Campaign. He was 24. George is commemorated at East Mudros Military Cemetery on the Greek island of Lemnos (Λήμνος).

Lincoln War Memorial and St Benedict's Church

Lincoln City War Memorial and St Benedict’s Church 
The names of George M. Black, Arthur Black, and William B. Foster are inscribed on the High Street memorial 
© Copyright Tom Bastin and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

Arthur Black—the younger brother by 6 years—was born on 2nd May 1897 in the City of Lincoln itself. He became a Private in the 1/4th Battalion, the Lincolnshire Regiment; his service number was 1824. He died on 13th October 1915, at only 18 years of age, in the “useless slaughter of infantry” of the Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt. His name is inscribed on the Loos Memorial in northern France, one of the 3,643 Allied casualties of the battle.

5. William Bassett Foster (1889-1915)

William Bassett Foster was my wife’s great-great-uncle (two greats). He was born in 1889 in Lincoln: the son of house painter Thomas Foster and Hannah Cass née Bassett, of 63, Burton Road. Like Arthur Black, he was a Private in the 1/4th Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment; service number 2783. He was killed in the same battle on 13th October 1915, aged 26, and is also commemorated on the Loos Memorial.

William Foster’s name—along with George and Arthur Black’s—can be seen on the city war memorial on Lincoln High Street.

6. Other relatives who served and survived the war

This list will grow as I discover more service records.

*I am greatly indebted to my distant cousin Nigel Butterfield who provided the information on the four Curry brothers who were my three-greats uncles.

Stone of Remembrance, Tyne Cot

Stone of Remembrance, Tyne Cot
© Copyright Mark Kilner and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

References

  • Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822), weaver of Hutton Rudby

    Posted on May 20th, 2014 by Paul Stainthorp
    Thumbnail photo of my children with the grave of their six-greats grandparents

    Thumbnail photo of my children with the grave of their six-greats grandparents.
    Copyright © Paul Stainthorp, all rights reserved

    My great-great-great-great-great grandfather (i.e. five greats) Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822) and five-greats grandmother Hannah née Waring (1768-1836) are buried in the churchyard of All Saints Church, Rudby-in-Cleveland, in the north-east corner of the North Riding of Yorkshire, about nine miles south of Middlesbrough.1

    My Stainthorp ancestors lived in the adjoining village of Hutton Rudby from at least the early 1600s until c.1890.2 Our surname derives from the former market town of Staindrop, across the River Tees from Hutton, in County Durham. The placename matches Old Norse steinn + þorp meaning the ‘stony’ settlement or farmstead, or one belonging to a Dane named Steinn,3,4 but is probably a Scandinavianization of an underlying Old English placename stǣner (‘stony’) + hop (‘valley’).5 Staindrop is spelt Stainthorp or -thorpe on some eighteenth-century maps and gazetteers.6,7 The manorial district around the village was anciently known as Staindropshire.8Gilbert de Steyndrope, goldsmith and sheriff, was recorded in London in 1346.9

    The market town of Stainthorp (Staindrop), in “A Map of the BISHOPRICK of DURHAM North from London” by T. Badeslade and W.H. Toms, 1741.

    The market town of Stainthorp (Staindrop), in “A Map of the BISHOPRICK of DURHAM North from London” by T. Badeslade and W.H. Toms, 1742.

    The local history society in Hutton Rudby have transcribed the parish records for All Saints:2 despite dozens of Stainthorp burials recorded in Rudby over two centuries, Francis’s is the only one of my ancestor’s graves marked with a headstone.10 The memorial inscription is very well preserved and reads:

    The headstone of linen weaver Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822) and his wives Jane née Kendale (1764-1795) and Hannah née Waring (1768-1836). All Saints, Rudby

    The headstone of linen weaver Francis Stainthorp (1765-1822) and his wives Jane née Kendale (1764-1795) and Hannah née Waring (1768-1836). All Saints, Rudby. Copyright © Paul Stainthorp, and licensed for reuse under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License

    “Sacred
    TO THE MEMORY OF
    FRANCIS STAINTHORP,
    who died July the 19th, 1822;
    Aged 57 Years.
    ALSO
    JANE his First Wife,
    who died June the 17th, 17[95?];
    Aged 31 Years.
    ALSO OF
    HANNAH his Second Wife,
    Who died August the 14th, 1836;
    Aged 68 Years.”

    Francis Stainthorp, the only? son of Robert Stainthorp (d. 1820?) and Margaret née Wilchinson (d. 1771), was baptised at Rudby parish church on 10th March 1765.2 He became a linen weaver – hand-loom weaving at home was the traditional occupation in Hutton, which was at the centre of the Cleveland linen industry, processing Baltic flax brought into the Tees ports.1,11 The village was also notorious for its connections to smuggling:

    “Hutton Rudby, Enterpen,
    Far more rogues than honest men…”

    — traditional rhyme.12

    Francis married twice and had a total of ten children.2 Of those ten, three died in early childhood and the parents re-used their forenames for subsequent births. (This seems odd today but was not uncommon in the early nineteenth century.13 I have used Roman numerals I, II and III to distinguish the births below.)

    On 23rd May 1786, Francis married Jane Kendale at Rudby All Saints.2,14 They had three children:

    1. John I, died in infancy
    2. Margaret (b. 9th March 1791)
    3. Jane (baptised 9th February 1794)

    Francis’s wife Jane died in 1795 aged just 31 and he married Hannah Waring on 14th April 1798.2,15,16 Hannah and Francis had a further seven children:

    1. John II, died in infancy
    2. Hannah (b. 25th August 1802)
    3. Francis (b. 22nd August 1803 – d. 14th August 1882)
    4. Mary (bapt. 24th May 1805)
    5. Ann I, died in infancy
    6. Ann II (bapt. 16th October 1808)
    7. John III (bapt. 19th August 1810 – bur. 2nd May 1858)
    Title page of the poll book for Yorkshire, 1807

    Title page of the poll book for Yorkshire, 1807. Scan of a work in the public domain

    The two boys who survived were my four-greats grandfather Francis (1803-82), and John (1810-58). Both became hand-loom linen weavers like their father.17

    In 1807, the 42-year-old Francis Stainthorp’s name and occupation were recorded in the county poll book for that year’s election to the House of Commons of the two county MPs for Yorkshire – the so-called “Knights of the Shire”.18 Francis had the vote, pre-Reform Act, becaue he was a freeholder resident in the liberty of Langbaurgh (the wapentake which included Hutton Rudby). This was no secret ballot: how each man voted was recorded and published. Francis’s candidate—the incumbent anti-slavery MP William Wilberforce—retained his seat.19

    As his gravestone inscription records, Francis Stainthorp senior died on 19th July 1822 at the age of 57; he was buried two days later in the churchyard at Rudby All Saints, where his bones presumably still lie.2,10

    In his will, written on 21st January 1822, and proved at the Exchequer Court of York later the same year, Francis left a considerable amount of property to his wife, five surviving daughters (Hannah, Mary, Ann, Margaret and Jane) and sons Francis and John. The will mentions several houses in Hutton occupied by tenant weavers, two acres of land, an orchard, “farming stock, Implements of Husbandry, and stock in Trade… Household goods, furniture, plate, linen and china“, and sums of money to be given to each of his children. A copy of the will is held on microfilm at the Borthwick Institute for Archives in York;20 the will is also summarised and the estate valued in the death duty registers held at the National Archives.21

    I give to my said Wife for her own use
    absolutely the Cow now in my possession…

    — excerpt from Francis Stainthorp’s will.20

    After his death, some of Francis senior’s property in Hutton—consisting of two houses with a garden, orchard, [work]shop & stable—was bought by David Hebbron, a butcher.22 Francis’s elder son, Francis, lived to 78 and was one of the last hand-loom weavers in the village.23 Francis junior and his wife Ann Seamer had three sons of their own in the 1830s,2 though all but the youngest died in childhood.24,25

    Section of Francis Stainthorp's will, held in the Borthwick Institute in York

    Section of Francis Stainthorp’s will, held in the Borthwick Institute in York

    Francis junior’s third son Charles Stainthorp (1835-1905) and grandson William (1862-1924) became butchers, after the industrial revolution brought cheap imported linen to Britain and put paid to cottage hand-loom weaving in north-east Yorkshire. Ironically one of the last uses of Hutton Rudby home-spun linen was to make blue apron material for butchers like Charles and his descendants.26

    After a series of family and financial tragedies in the 1870s and ’80s, Charles and William Stainthorp both left the North Riding and moved their families to what would later become the metropolitan area of Tyne and Wear. William’s youngest child: my great-grandfather Henry Harland (Harry) Stainthorp, was born in Sunderland in 1904. He carried on the Stainthorp family butchering business on Tyneside, succeeded by his own eldest son: my grandfather, who ran a butcher’s shop in Whitley Bay until he retired in 1986.

    There were no (living) Stainthorps left in Hutton Rudby by the end of the nineteenth century.

    Acknowledgements

    I’m grateful to the following people, some of whom do not even know me, but without whose help I would not have been able to write this post :– my late grandad Bill Stainthorp and my grandma Marjorie, Joan Stainthorp, Gill S., Carole A., John and Marianne S., Margaret Brabin, Alice Barrigan (North Yorkshire History), J. E. Stainthorp, the staff of the Lincolnshire public library service, the Borthwick Institute for Archives at the University of York, and several people on the RootsChat family history forum. Thank you.

    References

    1. Page, William (editor). ‘Parishes: Rudby-in-Cleveland.’ In: A history of the county of York, North Riding. Volume 2. London: St. Catherine Press, 1923. British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=64663 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    2. Hutton Rudby and District Local History Society. Handwritten transcriptions from the registers of the parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entries for ‘Stainthorp’ and related spellings. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com).
    3. Mawer, Allen. The place-names of Northumberland and Durham. Cambridge University Press, 1920. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/cu31924028042996 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    4. Simpson, David. ‘Place-name meanings P to S.’ England’s North East. 2009. http://englandsnortheast.co.uk/PlaceNameMeaningsPtoS.html (accessed 14th October 2014).
    5. Mills, Anthony David. A dictionary of British place-names. Oxford University Press, 2011. Google Books. http://books.google.co.uk/books?vid=ISBN9780199609086 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    6. Badeslade, Thomas and Toms, William H. ‘A map of the Bishoprick of Durham north from London.’ In: Chorographia Britanniæ: or, a new set of maps of all the counties in England and Wales, etc… 1742.
    7. Camden, William. Britaine, or, a chorographicall description of the most flourishing kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland. London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610. Transcription by Dana F. Sutton, 14th June 2004. A Vision of Britain Through Time. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/travellers/Camden/27#pn_9 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    8. Dufferwiel, Martin. Durham: over 1,000 years of history and legend. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2011. Google Books. http://books.google.co.uk/books?vid=ISBN9781780573946 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    9. Sharpe, Reginald R. (editor). Calendar of letter-books preserved among the archives of the Corporation of the City of London at the Guildhall: letter-book F, 1337-1352. Folios cxxi-cxxx, pages 143-156. London: John Edward Francis, 1904. British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=33540 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    10. Headstone of Francis Stainthorp, All Saints, Rudby-in-Cleveland. Photograph taken by Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com), 6th April 2014. Find A Grave. http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=Stainthorp&GSfn=Francis&GRid=128813340 (accessed 30th April 2014).
    11. Barrigan, Alice. ‘Linen weaving and the paper mill.’ In: Remarkable, but still true: the story of the Revd R.J. Barlow and Hutton Rudby in the time of cholera. Guisborough: Westgate, 2007. North Yorkshire History. http://northyorkshirehistory.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/chapter-2-linen-weaving-paper-mill.html (accessed 14th October 2014).
    12. Pierson, Thomas. Roseberry Topping: a poem (originally published 1783): with notes, and also a notice of the author and a memoir of the late Thomas Jennett. Edited by John Walker Ord. Stockton: Jennett & Co., 1847. Google Books. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HbksAQAAMAAJ (accessed 14th October 2014).
    13. Fraser, Susanna. ‘What’s in a necronym?’ In Love and War. 9th June 2011. http://authorsusannafraser.blogspot.co.uk/2011/06/whats-in-necronym.html (accessed 14th October 2014).
    14. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the marriage of Francis Stainthorpe and Jane Kendale, 23rd May 1786.
    15. Diocese of York. Bishop’s transcripts. Parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the marriage of Francis Stainthorpe and Hannah Waring, 14th April 1798.
    16. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Transcription from the registers of the parish of Rudby-in-Cleveland. Entry for the marriage of Francis Stainthorpe and Hannah Waring, 14th April 1798. Genealogical Society film number: 918436. FamilySearch. https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/NKBD-X5W (accessed 14th October 2014).
    17. General Register Office. 1841 census returns. Archive reference HO107, piece 1258, book 9, folio 13, page 18. Entry for North End, Township of Hutton, Rudby in Cleveland.
    18. County of York. The poll, for Knights of the Shire. York: T. Wilson and R. Spence, 1807. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/countyyorkpollf00unkngoog/ (accessed 14th October 2014).
    19. ‘Yorkshire election 1807.’ Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yorkshire_election_1807 (accessed 14th October 2014).
    20. Exchequer Court of York. The will of Francis Stainthorpe. Probate register 167, folio 621. Deanery of Cleveland, 11th November 1822. York: Borthwick Institute for Archives.
    21. Estate Duty Office. Death duty registers. Archive reference IR 26/932, S-T, folio numbers 1642-1942. Entry for Francis Stainthorpe, 11th November 1822. Kew: The National Archives.
    22. Barrigan, Alice. ‘People of Hutton Rudby in the C18/19: Southeran to Swallwell.’ North Yorkshire History. 10th June 2013. http://northyorkshirehistory.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/people-of-hutton-rudby-in-c1819_10.html (accessed 15th October 2014).
    23. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 4861, folio 16, page 9. Entry for Goldie Hill, Hutton Rudby.
    24. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for Francis Stainthorp, 24th May 1840. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley XXIV 326. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=hFGOb3hYcdX31Axmj%2FMOYA&scan=1 (accessed 15th October 2015).
    25. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for William Stainthorp, 14th February 1848. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Stokesley 24 399. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=WTid0xIRy7p4MMXBgtkdJg&scan=1 (accessed 15th October 2015).
    26. Barrigan, Alice. ‘Epilogue.’ In: Remarkable, but still true: the story of the Revd R.J. Barlow and Hutton Rudby in the time of cholera. Guisborough: Westgate, 2007. North Yorkshire History. http://northyorkshirehistory.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/chapter-24-epilogue.html (accessed 15th October 2014).

    Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). Version 1.2.5, updated 19th November 2014.

    Family history brick wall: who was Luke O’Grady?

    Posted on March 3rd, 2014 by Paul Stainthorp

    One of my great-grandfathers was Frank Corr a.k.a. Frank O’Grady (1888-1962) of Birmingham and Sheffield. I’m trying to confirm the origins and discover the fate of his biological father Luke O’Grady, my great-great-grandfather. What follows is an outline of the life of Frank O’Grady Corr, notes on the identity of Luke O’Grady, and my ideas for further research.

    Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). Version 1.7.0, updated 10th November 2014.

    1. The life of Frank O’Grady Corr
    2. Who was Luke O’Grady?
    3. Where next? Ideas for further research
    4. References
    5. Note on links to sources

    The life of Frank O’Grady Corr

    Back yard, Court 15, Inge Street, Birmingham

    Back yard, Court 15, Inge Street, Birmingham
    A rare preserved example of the thousands of back-to-back courts that used to provide housing for workers and their families in the years of the 19th and 20th centuries.
    © Copyright Brian Robert Marshall and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

    Frank was born on Sunday, 22nd January 1888, at the back of 135 Brearley Street in the Lozells area of Birmingham.1

    His mother was Emily née Farley, born 1854,2 the widow of Edward Corr, a turner & fitter from Wolverhampton.3 Edward’s parents were Felix Corr and Harriet née Spooner.4,5

    Emily and Edward married on 14th July 1872.6 They had seven children together: John Felix (1873-1956), Florence (1876-77), Beatrice (1876-77), Alfred Edward (1877-1900), Emmett (1880-81), Edward (1883-1933), and Harold (1885-1952).7 Three children died in infancy. In 1881 the family lived on Burbury Street, Lozells.3

    Edward Corr died in 1887, more than ten months before my great-grandfather’s birth.8

    The informant on Frank’s birth certificate was his father Luke O’Grady. Luke gave his occupation as glass embosser (journeyman)1—a skilled trade connected to the glassmaking industry common in the English Black Country since the 17th century9—and his address as 135 Brearley Street where Frank was born. Frank’s mother is named as Emily O’Grady (sic) formerly Farley.1

    This use of the surname O’Grady for or by Emily must have been a common-law arrangement, or else a polite fiction on behalf of Luke O’Grady for the registrar’s benefit: there is no record of a marriage between Emily and anyone named O’Grady, and Emily never used the name again.

    It seems that Emily could not read or write;6 perhaps that’s why she didn’t register the birth herself.

    In the 1891 census, Emily and Luke’s three-year-old son Frank O’Grady was with his maternal grandmother Emma Farley in Barr Street, Birmingham;10 Emily Corr was a few streets away at 6 Tower Street working as a machinist, with John, Alfred and Edward, three of her four surviving sons by Edward Corr.11 (The fourth son, Harold, was also being cared for by relatives locally.12) Frank’s father Luke O’Grady is nowhere to be found.

    After this point my great-grandfather Frank used Corr exclusively as his adult surname.

    Blaco Road, Attercliffe, Sheffield

    Blaco Road, Attercliffe, Sheffield
    Blaco Road looking towards the gates of Carbrook Park, showing No. 5. 25th April 1966. Photographer: H. Ainscough.
    Found on the Picture Sheffield website
    © Copyright David Ainscough – used with permission

    By 1901, Frank Corr had left Birmingham and moved to Sheffield with his mother and half-brother Harold, and was working as a labourer in the steel industry at the age of just thirteen.13 Emily, Harold and Frank lived at 46 Blaco Road, Attercliffe-cum-Darnall, along with ‘boarder’ Charles Tillbrook and two of Charles’s children. Emily Corr née Farley married her ‘boarder’ later the same year and became Emily Tillbrook.14

    (In 1911, Frank’s mother Emily and her second husband Charles Tillbrook were living at 83 Clifton Street, Sheffield, with Charles’s daughter Elizabeth and Emily’s son Harold Corr – albeit recorded on the census under his stepfather’s surname as “Harold Tillbrook”.15 Emily died in 1919;16 Charles Tillbrook in 1930.17 Of Frank’s three surviving half-brothers, John Felix stayed in Birmingham and became a brassworker.18 Edward joined the Army and was stationed at Whittington Barracks near Lichfield in Staffs:19 he served with the 3rd South Staffordshire Regiment in WWI.20 Harold Corr/”Tillbrook” settled in Sheffield and worked as a gas stoker in the steel industry.15)

    Photograph of Frank Corr

    Frank Corr
    Taken at a family wedding in 1946.
    From a family photograph, © all rights reserved

    Frank stayed in Sheffield for the rest of his life, marrying Lily Bowden on 16th February 1907 at Sheffield Registry Office. To the registrar he gave his father’s name as Luke O’Grady, occupation glass embosser. Frank’s marriage certificate included both names for the record (“Frank O’Grady otherwise Frank Corr“) – this is the last recorded use of the name O’Grady.21 By 1911, Lily and Frank Corr—occupation steel dresser—were living in Carbrook, Sheffield with their first two daughters of an eventual eleven children.22

    I have been told by a distant cousin that Frank and Lily’s eldest daughter Emily (born 1907)23 certainly knew of something relating to her father being of Irish decent and that he was probably illegitimate.24

    Frank Corr died on 19th January 1962 and was buried with his wife Lily in Tinsley Park Cemetery in Sheffield.25 He didn’t leave a will.

    Frank and Lily’s seventh child was my maternal grandfather Harold Corr (1921-1999).26,27 A career soldier, Harold served in WWII, Korea, Hong Kong and Germany before leaving the Army and settling in Lincolnshire in the 1960s. Harold Corr and my grandmother Ruby née Howson had six children and fifteen grandchildren including the author of this document.

    Who was Luke O’Grady?

    “Wolverhampton Luke”

    I now believe that Frank’s father was almost certainly Luke Grady, born 1867 in Wolverhampton.28

    Luke was the son of Irish-born cordwainer (i.e. master shoe/bootmaker) William Grady, of Armagh, and Wolverhampton native Jane née Spooner, who married at St George’s church in Wolverhampton on 23rd April 1859.29 Luke Grady had four sisters: Ellen or Helen (born 1860), Martha (1864), Agnes (1871) and Winifred (1876), plus one older brother Mark (1862).7 They lived at 80 Temple Street, Wolverhampton.30

    “Wolverhampton Luke” Grady was the first cousin of Edward Corr, the dead husband of Emily Corr née Farley. Their respective mothers (Harriet and Jane Spooner) were sisters, the daughters of shoemaker Edward Spooner and Ann née Highfield.31

    Sketch family tree showing the relationship between Edward Corr and Luke O’Grady

    Sketch family tree showing the relationship between Edward Corr and Luke O’Grady
    Some dates of birth and death are unconfirmed
    Image created using Family Echo software (www.familyecho.com)

    The patronymic “O'” in Irish surnames was often dropped in the 19th century, at least in England, so “Grady” and “O’Grady” would have been almost interchangeable. The Wolverhampton family appear as plain “Grady” in almost all registration/census records and in an 1880 newspaper report concerning a court case,32 although Luke’s father was recorded as “William O. Grady” on one census.33

    Jane Grady died in 1878 and William in 1884,34,35 so Luke was pretty much alone in the world by the time of Frank O’Grady’s birth in 1888.

    There isn’t a single record of “Wolverhampton Luke” Grady in England after 1881: no marriage or death entries and no census or employment records. His proximity and family ties to the Corrs, along with the suspicious timing of his disappearance, all suggest strongly that he is Frank’s father. However I have no positive evidence to connect him with the Black Country glass industry or to place him in Birmingham in 1888. I’ve also been unable to trace the fate of all of Luke’s siblings – what happened to them all after they lost their father in 1884?

    (Luke’s brother Mark [O']Grady seems to have become a general clerk for the Great Western Railway in London & Cardiff.36 He died in 1889 in Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales. His youngest sister Winifred married Austin Horsley in 1897, had one daughter, and died in Sussex in 1930. Agnes is recorded working as a domestic servant in London in 1891, but then disappears. Of Ellen and Martha, nothing.)7

    “Buffalo Bill Luke”

    I am not the only person searching for Luke O’Grady. I have been contacted by a descendant of Francis Patrick O’Grady (c.1893-1971): Francis’s father was also called Luke O’Grady, and seems also to have disappeared somewhat mysteriously.37

    Francis P. O’Grady was born c. 1st March 1893, possibly in Ireland, although no birth or baptism records have been traced for him. When he married in England in 1925, and again (having been widowed) in 1930, he gave his father’s name as Luke O’Grady, occupation ‘house decorator’.37

    According to a family story, Francis’s father Luke O’Grady left his wife Mary Ann [maiden name unknown] and their young son, to travel with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, and may have had one or more children with another woman. Francis P. O’Grady apparently grew up in Ireland and England, had an adopted / step-sister called Mona, and a cousin (either paternal or maternal) named Sammy. When Francis’s mother Mary Ann O’Grady died in 1940 she was recorded as being the widow of Luke O’Grady, house decorator (master).37

    It is possible that the same Luke O’Grady was the father of both Frank O’Grady Corr and Francis Patrick O’Grady, making them half-brothers. Even if this is not the case, “Buffalo Bill” Luke O’Grady seems to have been just as elusive—both before and after the birth of his son—as ‘my’ Luke O’Grady.

    “Holbeach Luke” (Now discounted.)

    There was one other Luke Grady alive in England at the time of Frank’s birth (Luke Grady b.1848 in Holbeach, Lincolnshire – d.1891 in Cockermouth, Cumberland)38,39 but “Holbeach Luke” raised a family in northern England and doesn’t seem to have had any connection to Birmingham or to glassmaking.40

    Germanic Luke”

    The Germanic, before 1895

    The Germanic, before 1895
    White Star Line steamship, built 1874 at Belfast by Harland and Wolff, as she appeared before her funnels were lengthened and an extra deck added in 1895.
    Courtesy of the Norway Heritage Collection – www.norwayheritage.com
    Source: www.heritage-ships.com

    On 10th August 1888, eight months after Frank was born, the ship the Germanic docked at New York, late of Liverpool and Queenstown (Cobh). On board was Luke O’Grady, a labourer, aged 35, nationality English. The age and occupation are wrong for “Wolverhampton Luke”, but the timing is suspicious!41

    On 20th July 1894 at the Common Pleas Court in New York, Luke became a naturalized American. His address at the time was 419 East 22nd Street, New York City and his sponsor was Timothy Maloney.42

    I have been unable to trace “Germanic Luke” O’Grady in England before 1888 or in the USA after naturalization in 1894. He does not appear in any of the US censuses as far as I can tell.

    So: did Luke Grady of Wolverhampton emigrate immediately after his son’s birth in 1888? Was he the father of Francis P. O’Grady as well as Frank O’Grady Corr? Or were these Luke [O']Gradys two or three different people (in which case: what happened to them all, and to “Wolverhampton” Luke’s remaining siblings?).

    Finally, there is the possibility that Luke O’Grady was simply a stock pseudonym used by whomever registered the birth, and that Frank’s real father’s name was something else entirely. (Now discounted.)

    Where next? Ideas for further research

    These are my ideas for further research to prove the identity, origin and fate of my 2-greats-grandfather:

    • Track down more records from Frank’s own life – there is at least one other descendant of Frank Corr who is researching the family history.
    • Buy birth, marriage and death records as needed for Emily Farley, Edward Corr, Emma Farley, Charles Tillbrook and all of Frank’s half-siblings (est. cost: £150+).
    • Buy copies of “Wolverhampton Luke” Grady’s birth certificate and his parents’ marriage & death certificates (est. cost: £37).
    • Try and determine the fate of “Wolverhampton Luke” Grady’s brother and four sisters.
    • Search the UK censuses for glass embossers in 1891, in the possibility that Luke O’Grady changed his name but continued in the same occupation.
    • Find out who lived at 2 Back 135 Brearley Street, Lozells, Birmingham, immediately before and after Frank’s birth in 1888.
    • Determine the whereabouts of “Holbeach Luke” Grady in 1888, if only to rule him out.
    • Share all information with anyone who is researching the identity of Luke the father of Francis Patrick O’Grady; in particular for possible records of Luke O’Grady living with a wife Mary Ann in Ireland, and/or as an employee of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show in the early 1900s.
    • Trace any living descendants of Emily Farley’s children Frank Corr, John Felix Corr, Alfred Edward Corr, Edward Corr jr and Harold Corr, and those of William Grady of Wolverhampton.
    • Look for records of Luke [O']Grady in Ireland and Scotland both before and after 1888.
    • Investigate Y-chromosomal DNA testing between a living male-line descendant of Frank Corr (there are four in my immediate family) vs. a proven patrilineal descendant of William Grady if one can be found.
    • Contact local family history societies in the Black Country/Birmingham area (e.g. the Birmingham and Midland Society for Genealogy); also surname special interest groups for Grady/O’Grady.
    • Visit the Birmingham ArchivesBlack Country Museum, and Broadfield House Glass Museum in Stourbridge, specifically to look for documents from the Black Country glassmaking industry – are there apprenticeship records for Luke O’Grady or is he otherwise mentioned?
    • Visit New York to try and find out what happened to “Germanic Luke” [O']Grady who became an American citizen in 1894.
    • Look for evidence of emigration other than to New York in 1888: not necessarily to the USA.

    References

    1. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of birth. Entry for Frank O’Grady, 22nd January 1888. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Birmingham 6d 132. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=PA65u5keSBZ%2BFKido5GqNA&scan=1 (accessed 23rd September 2014).
    2. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Emily Farley, June Quarter 1854. GRO index reference: Birmingham 6d 213. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=330lIBf34uMdnjR%2FG4u04Q&scan=1 (accessed 23rd September 2014).
    3. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 2997, folio 77, page 50. Entry for 6 Court 1 House, Burbury Street, Birmingham. Transcription. FamilySearch. https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/X3TS-VGQ (accessed 24th September 2014).
    4. Parish of Wolverhampton St Peter. Parish register. Entry for the marriage of Felix Corr and Harriet Spooner, 12th December 1852.
    5. Parish of Wolverhampton St Mary. Parish register. Entry for the baptism of Edward Corr, 24th July 1853.
    6. Ancestry Library Editionhttp://interactive.ancestrylibrary.com/4994/40458_316659-00101/ (accessed 24th September 2014).
    7. General Register Office. GRO index references [various]. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/ (accessed 3rd March 2014).
    8. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Edward Corr, March Quarter 1887. GRO index reference: Birmingham 6d 83. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=LRWp3lqiFmdZVqXQrkColQ&scan=1 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    9. BBC Online. ‘About the Black Country – Glass.’ Where I Live – the Black Country. 2005. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blackcountry/uncovered/glass.shtml (accessed 24th September 2014).
    10. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 2386, folio 50, page 24. Entry for 1 Court 15, Barr Street, Birmingham.
    11. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 2387, folio 102, page 45. Entry for 6, Tower Street, Birmingham.
    12. General Register Office. 1891 census returns. Archive reference RG12, piece 2416, folio 45, pages 20-21. Entry for Court 2 x 4 Cardigan Street, Birmingham.
    13. General Register Office. 1901 census returns. Archive reference RG13, piece 4387, folio 143, page 3. Entry for 52, Blaco Road, Attercliffe cum Darnall, Sheffield.
    14. General Register Office. Index to the register of marriages. Entry for Emily Corr, June Quarter 1901. GRO index reference: Sheffield 9c 795. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=rK0yNCBcQoqXtsSZc1hNtw&scan=1 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    15. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference: RG14PN27994 RG78PN1600 RD510 SD7 ED6 SN340. Entry for 83, Clifton Street, Sheffield.
    16. Sheffield & District Family History Society. National burials index. Entry for Emily Tillbrook, Sheffield Municipal Cemetery, 23rd June 1919. Sheffield: S&DFHS.
    17. Sheffield & District Family History Society. National burials index. Entry for Charles Tillbrook, Sheffield Municipal Cemetery, 19th July 1930.
    18. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference: RG14PN18285 RG78PN1102 RD385 SD4 ED16 SN93. Entry for 5 Gerrard Street, Lozells, Aston.
    19. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference: RG14PN16889 RD367 SD1 ED32 SN1. Entry for Whittington Barracks, Lichfield, Staffordshire.
    20. War Office. Medal card of Corr, Edward; Corps: South Staffordshire Regiment; Regiment No: 6118. Archive reference: WO 372/5/31373. Kew: The National Archives. http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/D1953743 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    21. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of marriage. Entry for Frank Corr and Lily Bowden, 16th February 1907. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Sheffield 9c 754. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=4UpNF1qg%2FRJ101VnPcGBRQ&scan=1 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    22. General Register Office. 1911 census returns. Census reference: RG14PN27994 RG78PN1600 RD510 SD7 ED6 SN338. Entry for 87, Surbiton Street, Sheffield.
    23. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Emily Corr, June Quarter 1907. GRO index reference: Sheffield 9c 725. FreeBMDhttp://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=YCwsAh1GgpKpnJfth5LXKA&scan=1 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    24. Sterling, J. ‘Re: Corr family.’ Email to Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com), 27th March 2014.
    25. Headstone of Frank and Lily Corr. Tinsley Park Cemetery, Sheffield.
    26. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of birth. Entry for Harold Corr, 5th June 1921. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com). GRO index reference: Sheffield 9c 1351. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=9K5KcX6BYsofroh9Ags%2FLg&scan=1 (accessed 24th September 2014).
    27. General Register Office. Certified copy of an entry of death. Entry for Harold Corr, 18th November 1999. Copy in the possession of Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com).
    28. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Luke Grady, December Quarter 1867. GRO index reference: Wolverhampton 6b 414. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=KdJn8qIyl77vFdCsfFBR%2BQ&scan=1 (accessed 7th November 2014).
    29. Parish of Wolverhampton St George. Parish register. Entry for the marriage of William Grady and Jane Spooner, 23rd April 1859. Transcription. Black Country History. http://blackcountryhistory.org/collections/getrecord/GB149_PRI_48_SU1/ (accessed 7th November 2014).
    30. General Register Office. 1871 census returns. Archive reference RG10, piece 2930, folio 113, page 21. Entry for Temple Street, Wolverhampton.
    31. Szimeth, J. ‘Re: Luke O’Grady.’ Email to Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com), 6th November 2014.
    32. ‘The Wolverhampton seduction case.’ The Birmingham Daily Post. 20th July 1880. Page 5. 19th Century British Newspapers. http://find.galegroup.com/bncn/ (accessed 7th November 2014).
    33. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 2793, folio 31, page 25. Entry for 80 Temple Street, Wolverhampton. Transcription. FamilySearch. https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/X3VS-CGP (accessed 7th November 2014).
    34. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Jane Grady, December Quarter 1878. GRO index reference: Wolverhampton 6b 354. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=JPbbG3m5XZTT0rjGotUzcw&scan=1 (accessed 7th November 2014).
    35. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for William Grady, June Quarter 1884. GRO index reference: Wolverhampton 6b 325. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=iqF6STi46h%2BmKWYfQC0uYw&scan=1 (accessed 7th November 2014).
    36. Great Western Railway Company. Staff records. Archive reference: RAIL 264, 1835-1962. Kew: The National Archives. http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C12452 (accessed 9th November 2014).
    37. Milne, S. ‘Re: The mysterious Luke O’Grady.’ Email to Paul Harland Stainthorp (paul@paulstainthorp.com), 9th August 2014.
    38. General Register Office. Index to the register of births. Entry for Luke Grady, December Quarter 1848. GRO index reference: Holbeach XIV 397. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=niCuL6o9nOulxieoxUw1%2Fw&scan=1 (accessed 10th November 2014).
    39. General Register Office. Index to the register of deaths. Entry for Luke Grady, December Quarter 1891. GRO index reference: Cockermouth 10b 442. FreeBMD. http://www.freebmd.org.uk/cgi/information.pl?cite=YtDAHHUApCUyiuyG2IEe6A&scan=1 (accessed 10th November 2014).
    40. General Register Office. 1881 census returns. Archive reference RG11, piece 3444, folio 80, page 7. Entry for Hill Top, Dronfield, Chesterfield, Derbyshire. Transcription. FamilySearch. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XQSQ-MBH (accessed 10th November 2014).
    41. United States Customs Service. Passenger list of the Germanic arriving at New York, 10th August 1888. Washington, DC: The National Archives at Washington. Ancestry Library Edition. http://interactive.ancestrylibrary.com/7488/NYM237_523-0871/ (accessed 10th November 2014).
    42. New York Common Pleas Court. Petition for naturalization, 20th July 1894. Bundle 768, record 86. New York, NY: The National Archives at New York City. Ancestry Library Edition. http://interactive.ancestrylibrary.com/1629/31194_120936-01117/ (accessed 10th November 2014).

    Note on links to sources

    Hyperlinks in the text of this document point to source documents and catalogues/indexes which contain or illustrate the information referenced. Where possible I have linked to free & open sources (FreeBMD; catalogue/archival records). In other cases where the source is not freely available, I have linked to a record within Ancestry Library Edition: these links will display an error message unless you first establish a session on Ancestry within a subscribing library building (e.g. in Lincolnshire).